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Summary of 2022 conflict incidents in the Uganda.

The Republic of Uganda is a landlocked country located in the eastern part of Africa and home to various ethnic and linguistic groups. The country is also religiously diverse, with Christianity being the most widely professed faith. Uganda has experienced intermittent violent conflicts since it achieved independence from the United Kingdom (UK) in 1962. Multiple military coups, violent regimes – including that of Idi Amin (1971-1979) – have resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths, displacement and the prolonged suffering of Ugandans. The country has faced opposition from different groups across the country. The government is contested and marked by recurrent political violence during and after elections. Corruption, Cattle rustling, Land conflicts, Flood displacements, Small Arms and light weapons proliferations. At a sub-regional level, it is possible to see how the national and regional-level conflict drivers are manifested on a day-to-day basis as shown below: –

West Nile shows similar patterns of land and resource disputes, contested boundaries, multiplication of districts, tensions over the promise of oil, frustrations over lack of justice, and failure to compensate ex-soldiers and provide redress to victims of past wars.

In west especially Bunyoro communal land is being sold into private hands while returnees are in conflict with community members who stayed behind. Land is being grabbed in the hope that oil will be found underneath. Commercialized agriculture is undermining subsistence livelihoods in a context of environmental degradation and food insecurity.

In neighboring Acholi historic perceptions of neglect are reinforced by allegedly unequal distribution of development and services and the unexplained phenomenon of nodding disease; land disputes between returning IDPs are intensified by oil exploration-related land grabs, and gazetting of land by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA). Patterns of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) accompany shifting gendered power relations, while youth unemployment and crime, difficulties in return and reintegration, and the establishment of new districts with inadequate capacity also undermine stability.

Lango sub-region is also subject to land grabbing (compounded by incursions of pastoralists from western Uganda and fears that non-Ugandans can buy up land or properties to the detriment of the local business community), resource conflicts, inadequate transitional justice, and the establishment of new districts despite unresolved corruption allegations against the judiciary, police and district authorities alike.

In Teso, conflict displacement-related land disputes and land grabbing are further aggravated by environmental disaster-induced displacement and food insecurity. ADVISORY CONSORTIUM ON CONFLICT SENSITIVITY (ACCS) xi in this context, inter-ethnic tensions, family breakdown and SGBV are widespread, while newly established districts lack the capacity to effectively tackle these issues.

 Elgon sub-region is affected by displacement from neighboring conflicts, land gazetting by the UWA, poor infrastructure and service delivery, and youth disenfranchisement and resultant involvement in crime. All these problems are exacerbated by inadequate responses to the 2010-2012 landslides,

Karamoja continues to be plagued by insecurity and intra-Karimojong tensions, which mask processes of mineral exploration and land grabbing/land gazetting, as well as government-driven decentralization processes which intensify conflicts between pastoralist and agro-pastoralist groups and livelihoods, which in turn are expressed in gender conflicts, cattle raiding, environmental destruction and youth unemployment.